[ Ana Sayfa | Yayın Kurulu | İçindekiler | Arşiv | Yayın Arama | Yazarlara Bilgi | İletişim ]
2018, Cilt 57, Sayı 1, Sayfa(lar) 026-030
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Anterior cruciate ligament injuries at the office workers who have irregular sport activity on the artificial surfaced playing areas
Özgür Korkmaz1, Melih Malkoç1, Serkan Gürcan2
1İstanbul Medipol University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, İstanbul, Turkey
2Gelişim University Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, İstanbul, Turkey
Keywords: Anterior cruciate ligament, artificial playing surface, office workers
Abstract
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears in Turkish office workers on the artificial playing surfaces.

Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven patients who were operated for anterior cruciate ligament tear that had injuries on artificial surfaced playing areas (ASPA)s were evaluated retrospectively. Evaluations were undertaken using Lysholm and Tegner Activity Scale pre-operatively and in the last follow-up. Injury mechanisms, shoe types, frequency of sporting activity, time of warm-up exercises before sporting activity were assessed. Types of ASPA’s, body mass index (BMI) and return to work period were also determined.

Results: Increase in Lysholm and Tegner activity scale between the preoperative and postoperative scores was found to be statistically significant (p<0.001). ACL tear occurred with non-contact injury in 65 patients, 22 patients had ACL tear with direct contact trauma. Football activity on the ASPAs is social allocation rather than a sportive activity. The rate of wearing special designed shoes for ASPA in sporting activities was low. The mean frequency of sporting activity was 1.4 times/month and the mean warm-up exercise time was 6.42 minutes. Sixty-nine ASPAs were made with 3th generation turf, 18 were 2nd generation turf. The mean BMI was 23.32 kg/m². The mean period for return to work was 17.41 weeks.

Conclusion: Irregular sportive activity with insufficient equipment on the ASPA causes serious ACL injuries that have to be managed by surgical procedures with loss of working time and economical casualties.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Disscussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Introduction
    Artificial Surfaced Playing Areas (ASPA), has emerged in the second half of the last century. Its popularity has grown all over the world with various technical changes 1. Larger audiences with higher capacity stadium and sports facilities has increased the need for ASPA. The other important factor is limited natural grass fields in growing cities and the request of urban population for large sporting areas without time and climate limitations. ASPAs has increased in sporting activities of children living in crowded cities 2.

    ASPA’s have social, economic and sporting benefits. But they have some controversial disadvantages, like; high injury rates, infections and carcinogenic effect that all are still a subject of discussion 3,6.

    Conspicuously, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are the third most common type of knee injury and surgical reconstruction of the ACL is the second most common type of surgery 7. The individuals who underwent to surgical procedure are commonly in working-active decades of life.

    Our hypothesis is ASPA’s have an important role on ACL tears. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the ASPA’s and related ACL tears in patients who had irregular sports activities at irregular intervals in Turkish office workers.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Disscussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Methods
    Our study was done after the approval ethics committee of our university (10840098-604.01.01-E.27513). We evaluated retrospectively 532 knee injuries that occurred on ASPA’s between April 2012 and January 2014 in our clinic. 112 patient had ACL tear. 87 patients who were operated for ACL tear that had injuries on ASPA’s were included to the study. The average age of the patients was 34.02 (25-51) years. All the patients were male. All the patients were evaluated with knee radiographs at admission. No bony lesion secondary to trauma were identified. MRI was performed for the patients who had suspicion for ACL tear according to the findings of clinical examination. Arthroscopic ACL repair surgery was recommended to the patients who had ACL tear verified by MRI.

    Operations were performed 3 weeks after the trauma. Evaluation of patients were performed with Lysholm and Tegner activity scale pre-operatively, at the 1th and 6th months postoperatively and in the last follow up. Level of activity was evaluated between 0-10 according to Tegner activity scale. All of the patients were included for the same physical therapy and rehabilitation program at the postoperative period.

    All operations were performed arthroscopically assisted with the use of Endobutton (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee) and tibial fixation was achieved with bio screw and u-staple. The mean follow-up period was 8.3 (6-16) months.

    Patients questioned about the injury mechanisms, shoe types, frequency of sporting activity, time of warm-up exercises before sporting activity, types of ASPA. Body mass index (BMI) of the patients were calculated, return to work period was determined.

    Preoperative and postoperative values of Tegner and Lysholm scores were evaluated statistically with Wilcoxon test which is non-parametric version of paired-t test. 95% confidence interval and p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Analysis were performed with SPSS16.0 version.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Disscussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Results
    Thirty-eight patients were evaluated as medium, 49 patients were evaluated as poor according to Lysholm scores preoperatively. There were 10 patients in level 1, 40 patients in level 2, 20 patients in level 3, 8 patients in level 4 and 9 patients in level 5 according to Tegner Activity Scale preoperatively. Thirty-nine patients were considered as perfect, 36 were good and 12 were medium according to Lysholm scores in last follow-up. There were 10 patients in level 10, 29 in level 9, 24 in level 8, 12 in level 7 , 9 in level 6 and 3 in level 5 according to Tegner activity scale in the last follow up (Tables 1-2). Increase between the preoperative and postoperative scores was determined to be statistically significant (p<0.001).


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    Table 1: Preoperative Tegner Activity Scale.


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    Table 2: Postoperative Tegner Activity Scale.

    In 65 individuals ACL tear occurred with non-contact injury, while the remaining 22 of the patients had ACL tear with direct contact trauma.

    It was questioned how the operated patients consider the activity they performed. Two different answering options were available: Whether they consider the activity as sportive activity or as social activity. Eighty of the participants stated that they considered this football activity on the ASPAs as a social allocation with colleagues rather than a sportive activity.

    Only 7 patients were wearing special designed shoes for ASPA’s sporting activities, others were standard shoes.

    The mean frequency of sporting activity was 1.4 times/month (range 0-4 times) irregularly. The mean warm-up exercises for each activity was 6.42 minutes (range 0-15 minutes). While 69 ASPAs were made with 3th generation turf, 18 were 2nd generation turf where the ACL injury was took place.

    The mean BMI was 23.32 kg/m² (range 19.1-29.4 kg/m²). The mean period for return to work was 17.41 weeks (range 12-24 weeks).

    While 39 patients returned to football game on ASPA again after recovery period, 40 patients expressed that they had changed their sportive activity type and 8 patients gave up to their sportive activities.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Disscussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Discussion
    There is growing interest, at all levels of football, in new generation ASPA’s that use synthetic infill materials. Therefore, for the first time a reference to the field surface was included in the Laws of the Game of football on 1 July 2004 with the phrase; Matches may be played on natural or artificial surfaces, according to the rules of the competition 8. Turkey Football Federation issued a circular in 2009 for the first time and has set the standards for the supervision and control of ASPAs 9.

    First generation ASPAs were introduced to the professional sporting activity in 1960s 10. These fields are produced from stiff nylon fibers including no filling materials like sand or rubber 1. Risk of skin injuries were high on these surfaces 11. Second generation ASPA’s improved in the 1970s that fibers were made from soft polyethylene with sand as a filling material 1. In 1990s third generation ASPA’s were introduced that made of polyethylene monofilaments that textured and coated with rubber particles or sand as filling materials 1. In our study while 69 ASPA’s were third generation turf, 18 were second generation. ACL injury can occur on both type of ASPA's. For this reason structure of the playing surface is not the most important factor on ACL tears in Turkish office workers population who have irregular sport activity.

    Shoe and playing surface interaction contains many different factors. These are body weight, velocity, acceleration, deceleration and surface type 12. The sole, cleat or stud material and number, size of cleats and their configuration in shoe are the important factors that affect the shoe and ground interaction 1. Generally the conventional soccer and football shoes have different cleat lengths and types of sole and the ASPA shoes have dense pattern of short elastomeric studs over the all surface of sole 1. New generation ASPA shoes modified to include midsole weight absorbing to distribute the force during ground contact. In our study, only 7 individuals were wearing the special designed shoes for football playing on ASPA’s. The remaining were other types of shoes for designed other types of sporting activities, as walking, jogging, tennis playing or running. In our opinion, improper shoes on ASPAs may one of the most important factor predisposing for ACL tears that pointing to insufficient equipment.

    The strength, balance and flexibility of the surrounding musculature of the knee are the important factors for preventing knee from injuries. Consequently, warm-up exercise before any type of sporting activity is an important procedure. The football is a contact sport and the rate of ACL injuries are relatively high whether ASPA or natural grass players. The warm-up exercises before playing was found effective at preventing common injuries as well as ACL injuries in football (13-15). Several studies reported that warm-up exercises showed 57-77% reduction in the knee injury incidence 16-17. According to the results of Mandelbaum et al. during the year of 2000 football season, there was an 88% decrease in anterior cruciate ligament injury. During the year of 2001 football season, there was a 74% reduction in anterior cruciate ligament tears with 20 minutes warm-up exercises performed before matches and training 18. Therefore the warm-up exercises must be the essential part of the football before playing in order to prevent injuries. In our study, sparing time for warm-up exercise before football in individuals who had ACL injury on ASPAs were mean 6.42 minutes with a range between 0-15 minutes.

    Typically, ACL tears happen as a result of trauma. During sudden deceleration, turning and pivoting movement, ACL tears may occur. The most common mechanism of ACL injury is knee hyperextension with tibial varus and internal rotation. While both medial collateral ligament and medial meniscus tears can occur with severe valgus and external rotation force before the ACL tears, severe varus force can cause lateral collateral ligament tear and ACL tear and not withstanding, ACL tears with hyperextension and hyperflexion are rarely seen 19. In our study 65 individuals had ACL tear with non-contact injury, while the remaining 22 of the patients had ACL tear with a direct contact due to any type of trauma.

    Sparing less time for warm-up exercise is producing seriously trauma like ACL and also the other injuries. The number of non-contact injured ACL individuals is significantly higher than contact injured ACL individuals in our series. It is clearly provides that most ACL tears occur with non-contact injuries in individuals who perform less, insufficient, ineffective knee and corresponding muscularity warm-up exercise on ASPAs while sporting.

    Playing surface had a significant effect on injury rates with an incidence rate of 1.73 ACL injuries per 10,000 on ASPAs compared with a rate of 1.24 per 10,000 on natural grass and the rate of ACL injury on ASPA’s is 1.39 times higher than the injury rate on natural grass surfaces 13. Significantly higher rates of all types of injury in football have been reported on ASPA’s compared with natural grass 3-6. However, some reports documented that no difference in ACL injury rates on ASPA’s and natural grass surfaces 20-21, while a different study found increased rates of noncontact ACL injuries on natural grass compared with ASPA’s 22. Interestingly, most of the patients in our study are considering this activity as a social activity that having time with friends rather than a regular sport activity.

    Among 4307 patients from Turkey population with mean age 47.1±14.7 years (20-83) the average body mass index was determined as 28.3±5.2kg/m² 23. According to Turkey nutrition and health study, 62.8% of the population between the ages 19 to 30 the body mass index was below 25 kg/m² and 38.9% of the population between the ages 31 to 50 body mass index was 25-30 kg/m² and 38.9% of the population between the ages 31 to 50 body mass index was over 30 kg/m² 24. In our study, the mean BMI is 24.9 kg/m² (range 19.2-32.8 kg/m²). The mean age of patients was 34.02 (21-51). The mean BMIs of patients in our study are almost at the normal levels of Turkish population.

    Patients with ACL tear whose profession was sports return to sportive activity most commonly occurs at least 6 months postoperatively 25. The mean period for return to work was 17.41 weeks (range 12-24) according to our study. But patients were not professional athletes in our study.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Conclusion
    ASPA’s can be a reason for higher rate of injury. The reason for injuries on ASPA’s are irregular sportive activity, poor equipment, and short warm-up exercise period before sports activities as a result of our study. Irregular sportive activity with insufficient equipment on the ASPA causes the serious ACL tears that have to managed by surgical procedures resulting with loose of working time due to indispensable hospitalisation and rehabilitation period and significant economic losses in our country.
  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • References

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    25) Erickson BJ, Harris JD, Fillingham YA, et al. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction practice patterns by NFL and NCAA football team physicians. Arthroscopy 2014;30(6):731-8.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
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