This prospective study included 48 amblyopic eyes of 48 patients with anisometropic amblyopia (Group 1), the 48 fellow eyes of the amblyopic patients (Group 2), and the 45 right eyes of 45 healthy participants in the control group (Group 3).
Patients with histories of systemic disease, previous ocular surgery, ocular trauma, contact lens usage, intraocular pressure of >21 mmHg, evidence of cataract or glaucoma, dry eye, or any corneal, retinal, or choroidal pathology were excluded from the study. Hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia was defined as hyperopia of ≥1.5 D, an interocular difference of at least 1.5 D (spherical equivalent) and a visual acuity difference between the amblyopic and normal eyes of at least 2 lines on the Snellen chart. The spherical equivalent (SE) was calculated as the sum of the spherical value and half of the cylindrical value. The objective refraction was measured by retinoscopy after instillation of 2 drops, 10 minutes apart, of cyclopentolate hydrochloride 1% (Sikloplejin®, Abdi İbrahim, Turkey), whereas best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was obtained using Snellen charts and converted to LogMAR units for analysis. Controls were selected from patients who applied for routine ophthalmic examination. Emmetropia was defined as uncorrected distance visual acuity better than 20/25 by Snellen chart in each eye.
All patients had a detailed preoperative ophthalmologic examination including slit-lamp evaluation, Goldmann tonometry, fundoscopy, topography by Scheimpflug imaging (Sirius, Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Florence, Italy). The AL was measured using partial coherence laser interferometry (Zeiss IOL Master; Carl Zeiss AG, Oberkochen, Germany).
The Sirius, a topographic device consisting of a combination of two rotating Scheimpflug cameras and a Placido disk, was used for topographical and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements. Anterior and posterior corneal curvature,
CCT, corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and anterior chamber volume (ACV) values were recorded. All measurements were taken according to the manufacturers guideline by the same trained examiner first under photopic conditions, and then under cycloplegic conditions.
This study followed the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the local ethics committee. All patients provided informed consent prior to enrollment.
Three consecutive measurements were obtained, and their mean was used for statistical analysis. All analyses were performed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS, Windows version 21.0; SPSS Inc.; Chicago, USA). A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Topographic findings were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. The Bonferroni test was used for post hoc analysis.