Araştırma Makalesi
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Multipl miyelomun ABO kan grupları ile ilişkisi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 60, Sayı 3, 274 - 280, 13.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.19161/etd.990715

Öz

Amaç: Multipl myelom plazma hücrelerinin klonal proliferasyonu sonucu oluşan, heterojen, kür sağlanamayan hematolojik bir kanserdir. Kan gruplarının insan hastalıklarına katkısı ve/veya hastalık seyrindeki rolü kan gruplarının keşfinden bu yana bilim insanlarının ilgisini çekmiştir. Multipl myelom hastalarının kan grubu dağılımını ve kan gruplarının immunglobulin tipi ile ilişkisinin olup olmadığını araştırdık. Gereç ve Yöntem: Retrospektif planlanan çalışmaya 75 multipl myelom hastası ve 73128 kontrol grubu dahil edildi. İstatistiksel değerlendirme Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows 20 (IBM SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) programı kullanılarak yapıldı. Verilerin normal dağılımı Kolmogorov-Smirnov testi ile değerlendirildi. Bulgular: Multipl myelom hastalarında A ve B kan grupları oranı düşük, O ve AB kan grupları oranı yüksek saptandı. B kan grubunda ağır zincir IgA oranı diğer kan gruplarına kıyasla daha yüksek saptandı. IgG oranı ise O kan grubunda diğer kan gruplarına kıyasla daha yüksek saptandı. Sonuç: Multipl myelomda immunoglobulin tipi ile kan grupları arasında bir ilişki bulunmuştur. Bu konuda yapılacak daha kapsamlı çalışmalara ihtiyaç vardır.

Kaynakça

  • Brigle K, Rogers B. Pathobiology and diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2017; 33 (3): 225–236.
  • Alexander DD, Mink PJ, Adami HO, et al. Multiple myeloma: a review of the epidemiologic literature. Int J Cancer. 2007; 120 (S12): 40–61.
  • Razi B, Anani Sarab G, Omidkhoda A, Alizadeh S. Multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) gene polymorphism (rs1045642 C> T) and susceptibility to multiple myeloma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hematology. 2018; 2: 1-7. doi: 10.1080/10245332.2018.1443897.
  • Anstee DJ. The relationship between blood groups and disease. Blood 2010; 115: 4635-43.
  • Franchini M, Favaloro EJ, Targher G, Lippi G. ABO blood group, hypercoagulability, and cardiovascular and cancer risk. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2012; 49: 137-49.
  • Vadivelu MK, Damodaran S, Solomon J, Rajaseharan A. Distribution of ABO blood groups in acute leukaemias and lymphomas. Ann Hematol. 2004 Sep; 83 (9): 584-7. doi: 10.1007/s00277-004-0888-1.
  • Cserti-Gazdewich CM, Mayr WR, Dzik WH. Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the immunogenetics of ABO, HLA, and CD36 (platelet glycoprotein IV). Vox Sang 2011; 100: 99–111.
  • Shimizu K, Hirose N, Ebihara Y, et al. Blood type B might imply longevity. Exp Gerontol 2004; 39: 1563–5.
  • Sturgeon P, Beller S, Bates E. Study of blood group factors in longevity. J Gerontol 1969; 24: 90–4.
  • Barbalic M, Dupuis J, Dehghan A, et al. Large-scale genomic studies reveal central role of ABO in sP-selectin and sICAM-1 levels. Hum Mol Genet 2010; 19: 1863–72.
  • Kiechl S, Paré G, Barbalic M, et al. Association of variation at the ABO locus with circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble P-selectin, and soluble E-selectin: a meta-analysis. Circ Cardiovasc Genet 2011; 4: 681–6.
  • Terol MJ, Tormo M, Martinez-Climent JA, et al. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1/s-CD54) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: association with clinical characteristics and outcome. Ann Oncol. 2003 Mar;14 (3): 467-74. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdg057.
  • Lust JA, Lacy MQ, Zeldenrust SR, Witzig TE, Moon-Tasson LL, Dinarello CA, Donovan KA. Reduction in C-reactive protein indicates successful targeting of the IL-1/IL-6 axis resulting in improved survival in early stage multiple myeloma. 2016 Jun;91(6):571-4. doi: 10.1002/ajh.24352.
  • Azab AK, Quang P, Azab F, Pitsillides C, Thompson B, Chonghaile T, et al. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand regulates the interaction of multiple myeloma cells with the bone marrow microenvironment. Blood. 2012 Feb 9; 119 (6): 1468-78. doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-07-368050.
  • Rajkumar SV, Dimopoulos MA, Palumbo A, et al. International Myeloma Working Group updated criteria for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Lancet Oncol. 2014; 15: e538-e548.
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer; Lyon, France: 2014.
  • Colao A, Muscogiuri G, Piscitelli P. Environment and Health: Not Only Cancer. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Jul 19;13(7):724. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13070724.
  • Rooks, M.G. & Garrett W.S. 2016. Gut microbiota, metabolites and host immunity. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 16: 341–352.
  • Arend P. Position of human blood group O (H) and phenotype‐determining enzymes in growth and infectious disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 Aug;1425(1):5-18. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13694.
  • Amundadottir L., Kraft P., Stolzenberg-Solomon R.Z., Fuchs C.S., et al. Genome-wide association study identifies variants in the ABO locus associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer. Nature genetics. 2009; 41 (9): 986–90.
  • Wang Z, Liu L, Ji J, et al. ABO Blood Group System and Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis. Int J Mol Sci. 2012 Oct 17; 13 (10): 13308-21. doi: 10.3390/ijms131013308.
  • Tavasolian F, Abdollahi E, Vakili M, Amini A. Relationship between ABO blood group and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Iran J Ped Hematol Oncol. 2014; 4 (1): 1-4.
  • Nagy P, Jako J, Kiss A, Tamas E, Telek B, Rak K. Sex-linked difference in blood-group distribution among patients suffering from acute leukaemias. Br J Haematol. 1981 Jul; 48 (3): 507-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.1981.tb02743.x.
  • Mustacchi P, Shonfeld EM, Lucia S. Survival in Acute Leukemia: The Influence of Blood Groups, Sex, and Age at Onset. Annals of internal medicine. 1960; 52 (5): 1099-107.
  • Steinberg AG, Steinfeld JL. The genetics of acute leukemia in children. Cancer. 1960; 13 (5): 985-99.
  • Göçer M, Kurtoğlu E. Effect of the ABO blood groups on the development, clinical features and survival of multiple myeloma. Memo. 2020 Dec 23; 1-6. doi: 10.1007/s12254-020-00669-y.
  • Martins LC, de Oliveira Corvelo TC, Oti HT, et al.: ABH and Lewis antigen distributions in blood, saliva and gastric mucosa and H pylori infection in gastric ulcer patients. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12:1120–1124.
  • Faruque AS, Mahalanabis D, Hoque SS, et al.: The relationship between ABO blood groups and susceptibility to diarrhea due to Vibrio cholerae 0139. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 18:827–828.
  • Onsten TGH, Callegari-Jacques SM, Goldani LZ. The higher frequency of blood group b in a Brazilian population with HIV Infection. Open AIDS J 2013; 7: 47–50.
  • Perrotta C, Staines A, Cocco P. Multiple myeloma and farming. A systematic review of 30 years of research. Where next? J Occup Med Toxicol. 2008 Nov 17; 3: 27. doi: 10.1186/1745-6673-3-27.
  • Dobrovic A, O'Keefe D, Sage RE, Batchelder E. Imprinting and loss of ABO antigens in leukemia. Blood. 1993; 82 (5): 1684–1685.
  • Waleed MS, Sadiq W. Multiple Myeloma and Change of ABO Blood Group Type: A Case Report. Cureus. 2020 Sep; 12 (9): e10654.
  • van der Hart M, van der Veer M, van Loghem JJ. Change of blood group B in a case of leukemia. Vox Sang. 1962; 7: 449–453.
  • Crookston MC. Anomalous ABO, H, Ii phenotypes in disease. In: Garratty G, editor. Blood Group Antigens and Disease. Arlington, VA: American Association of Blood Banks; 1983. pp. 67–84.
  • Reid ME, Bird GW. Associations between human red cell blood group antigens and disease. Transfus Med Rev. 1990;4(1):47–55.
  • Kuhns WJ, Oliver RT, Watkins WM, Greenwell P. Leukemia-induced alterations of serum glycosyltransferase enzymes. Cancer Res. 1980; 40 (2): 268–275.
  • Jenkins PV, O'Donnell JS. ABO blood group determines plasma von Willebrand factor levels: a biologic function after all? Transfusion 2006; 46: 1836-44.
  • Pare G, Chasman DI, Kellogg M, et al. Novel association of ABO histo-blood group antigen with soluble ICAM-1: results of a genome-wide association study of 6,578 women. PLoS Genet 2008; 4: e1000118.
  • Franchini M, Frattini F, Crestani S, et al. Von Willebrand factor and cancer: a renewed interest. Thromb Res 2013; 131: 290-2.
  • Kobayashi H, Boelte KC, Lin PC. Endothelial cell adhesion molecules and cancer progression. Curr Med Chem 2007; 14: 377-86.
  • Klausz K, Cieker M, Kellner C, et. al. Fc-engineering significantly improves the recruitment of immune effector cells by anti-ICAM-1 antibody MSH-TP15 for myeloma therapy. Haematologica. 2020 Jun 4. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2020.251371.
  • Sokol J, Hrncar M, Nehaj F, Stasko J. Plasma Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Selected Hemostatic Parameters in Association With Treatment Response in Multiple Myeloma. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. Jan-Dec 2019; 25:1076029618823280. doi: 10.1177/1076029618823280.

Relationship of multiple myeloma with ABO blood groups

Yıl 2021, Cilt 60, Sayı 3, 274 - 280, 13.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.19161/etd.990715

Öz

Aim: Multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous, incurable haematological cancer that occurs as a result of the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. The impact of blood groups on human diseases and/or their role in the prognosis of the disease has attracted the attention of scientists since the discovery of blood groups. We investigated the blood group distribution of multiple myeloma patients and whether their blood groups are related to immunoglobulin type. Materials and Methods: 75 multiple myeloma patients and 73128 control group were included in the study, which was planned retrospectively. The statistical evaluation was performed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software for Windows 20 (IBM SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). The normal distribution of the data was evaluated with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Results: In multiple myeloma patients, the rate of A and B blood groups was low, and the rate of O and AB blood groups was high. Heavy chain IgA ratio was higher in B blood group compared to other blood groups. On the other hand, IgG ratio was found higher in O blood group compared to other blood groups. Conclusion: A relationship has been found between immunoglobulin type and blood types in multiple myeloma. More comprehensive studies are needed on this subject.

Kaynakça

  • Brigle K, Rogers B. Pathobiology and diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2017; 33 (3): 225–236.
  • Alexander DD, Mink PJ, Adami HO, et al. Multiple myeloma: a review of the epidemiologic literature. Int J Cancer. 2007; 120 (S12): 40–61.
  • Razi B, Anani Sarab G, Omidkhoda A, Alizadeh S. Multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) gene polymorphism (rs1045642 C> T) and susceptibility to multiple myeloma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hematology. 2018; 2: 1-7. doi: 10.1080/10245332.2018.1443897.
  • Anstee DJ. The relationship between blood groups and disease. Blood 2010; 115: 4635-43.
  • Franchini M, Favaloro EJ, Targher G, Lippi G. ABO blood group, hypercoagulability, and cardiovascular and cancer risk. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2012; 49: 137-49.
  • Vadivelu MK, Damodaran S, Solomon J, Rajaseharan A. Distribution of ABO blood groups in acute leukaemias and lymphomas. Ann Hematol. 2004 Sep; 83 (9): 584-7. doi: 10.1007/s00277-004-0888-1.
  • Cserti-Gazdewich CM, Mayr WR, Dzik WH. Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the immunogenetics of ABO, HLA, and CD36 (platelet glycoprotein IV). Vox Sang 2011; 100: 99–111.
  • Shimizu K, Hirose N, Ebihara Y, et al. Blood type B might imply longevity. Exp Gerontol 2004; 39: 1563–5.
  • Sturgeon P, Beller S, Bates E. Study of blood group factors in longevity. J Gerontol 1969; 24: 90–4.
  • Barbalic M, Dupuis J, Dehghan A, et al. Large-scale genomic studies reveal central role of ABO in sP-selectin and sICAM-1 levels. Hum Mol Genet 2010; 19: 1863–72.
  • Kiechl S, Paré G, Barbalic M, et al. Association of variation at the ABO locus with circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble P-selectin, and soluble E-selectin: a meta-analysis. Circ Cardiovasc Genet 2011; 4: 681–6.
  • Terol MJ, Tormo M, Martinez-Climent JA, et al. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1/s-CD54) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: association with clinical characteristics and outcome. Ann Oncol. 2003 Mar;14 (3): 467-74. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdg057.
  • Lust JA, Lacy MQ, Zeldenrust SR, Witzig TE, Moon-Tasson LL, Dinarello CA, Donovan KA. Reduction in C-reactive protein indicates successful targeting of the IL-1/IL-6 axis resulting in improved survival in early stage multiple myeloma. 2016 Jun;91(6):571-4. doi: 10.1002/ajh.24352.
  • Azab AK, Quang P, Azab F, Pitsillides C, Thompson B, Chonghaile T, et al. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand regulates the interaction of multiple myeloma cells with the bone marrow microenvironment. Blood. 2012 Feb 9; 119 (6): 1468-78. doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-07-368050.
  • Rajkumar SV, Dimopoulos MA, Palumbo A, et al. International Myeloma Working Group updated criteria for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Lancet Oncol. 2014; 15: e538-e548.
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer; Lyon, France: 2014.
  • Colao A, Muscogiuri G, Piscitelli P. Environment and Health: Not Only Cancer. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Jul 19;13(7):724. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13070724.
  • Rooks, M.G. & Garrett W.S. 2016. Gut microbiota, metabolites and host immunity. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 16: 341–352.
  • Arend P. Position of human blood group O (H) and phenotype‐determining enzymes in growth and infectious disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 Aug;1425(1):5-18. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13694.
  • Amundadottir L., Kraft P., Stolzenberg-Solomon R.Z., Fuchs C.S., et al. Genome-wide association study identifies variants in the ABO locus associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer. Nature genetics. 2009; 41 (9): 986–90.
  • Wang Z, Liu L, Ji J, et al. ABO Blood Group System and Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis. Int J Mol Sci. 2012 Oct 17; 13 (10): 13308-21. doi: 10.3390/ijms131013308.
  • Tavasolian F, Abdollahi E, Vakili M, Amini A. Relationship between ABO blood group and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Iran J Ped Hematol Oncol. 2014; 4 (1): 1-4.
  • Nagy P, Jako J, Kiss A, Tamas E, Telek B, Rak K. Sex-linked difference in blood-group distribution among patients suffering from acute leukaemias. Br J Haematol. 1981 Jul; 48 (3): 507-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.1981.tb02743.x.
  • Mustacchi P, Shonfeld EM, Lucia S. Survival in Acute Leukemia: The Influence of Blood Groups, Sex, and Age at Onset. Annals of internal medicine. 1960; 52 (5): 1099-107.
  • Steinberg AG, Steinfeld JL. The genetics of acute leukemia in children. Cancer. 1960; 13 (5): 985-99.
  • Göçer M, Kurtoğlu E. Effect of the ABO blood groups on the development, clinical features and survival of multiple myeloma. Memo. 2020 Dec 23; 1-6. doi: 10.1007/s12254-020-00669-y.
  • Martins LC, de Oliveira Corvelo TC, Oti HT, et al.: ABH and Lewis antigen distributions in blood, saliva and gastric mucosa and H pylori infection in gastric ulcer patients. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12:1120–1124.
  • Faruque AS, Mahalanabis D, Hoque SS, et al.: The relationship between ABO blood groups and susceptibility to diarrhea due to Vibrio cholerae 0139. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 18:827–828.
  • Onsten TGH, Callegari-Jacques SM, Goldani LZ. The higher frequency of blood group b in a Brazilian population with HIV Infection. Open AIDS J 2013; 7: 47–50.
  • Perrotta C, Staines A, Cocco P. Multiple myeloma and farming. A systematic review of 30 years of research. Where next? J Occup Med Toxicol. 2008 Nov 17; 3: 27. doi: 10.1186/1745-6673-3-27.
  • Dobrovic A, O'Keefe D, Sage RE, Batchelder E. Imprinting and loss of ABO antigens in leukemia. Blood. 1993; 82 (5): 1684–1685.
  • Waleed MS, Sadiq W. Multiple Myeloma and Change of ABO Blood Group Type: A Case Report. Cureus. 2020 Sep; 12 (9): e10654.
  • van der Hart M, van der Veer M, van Loghem JJ. Change of blood group B in a case of leukemia. Vox Sang. 1962; 7: 449–453.
  • Crookston MC. Anomalous ABO, H, Ii phenotypes in disease. In: Garratty G, editor. Blood Group Antigens and Disease. Arlington, VA: American Association of Blood Banks; 1983. pp. 67–84.
  • Reid ME, Bird GW. Associations between human red cell blood group antigens and disease. Transfus Med Rev. 1990;4(1):47–55.
  • Kuhns WJ, Oliver RT, Watkins WM, Greenwell P. Leukemia-induced alterations of serum glycosyltransferase enzymes. Cancer Res. 1980; 40 (2): 268–275.
  • Jenkins PV, O'Donnell JS. ABO blood group determines plasma von Willebrand factor levels: a biologic function after all? Transfusion 2006; 46: 1836-44.
  • Pare G, Chasman DI, Kellogg M, et al. Novel association of ABO histo-blood group antigen with soluble ICAM-1: results of a genome-wide association study of 6,578 women. PLoS Genet 2008; 4: e1000118.
  • Franchini M, Frattini F, Crestani S, et al. Von Willebrand factor and cancer: a renewed interest. Thromb Res 2013; 131: 290-2.
  • Kobayashi H, Boelte KC, Lin PC. Endothelial cell adhesion molecules and cancer progression. Curr Med Chem 2007; 14: 377-86.
  • Klausz K, Cieker M, Kellner C, et. al. Fc-engineering significantly improves the recruitment of immune effector cells by anti-ICAM-1 antibody MSH-TP15 for myeloma therapy. Haematologica. 2020 Jun 4. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2020.251371.
  • Sokol J, Hrncar M, Nehaj F, Stasko J. Plasma Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Selected Hemostatic Parameters in Association With Treatment Response in Multiple Myeloma. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. Jan-Dec 2019; 25:1076029618823280. doi: 10.1177/1076029618823280.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Didar YANARDAĞ AÇIK Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
Department of Internal Medicine and Haematology, Adana City Education and Research Hospital, Adana,
0000-0001-7282-0188
Türkiye


Mehmet BANKİR Bu kişi benim
Department of Internal Medicine, Adana City Education and Research Hospital, Adana
0000-0003-3284-2838
Türkiye


Begüm Seyda AVCİ Bu kişi benim
Department of Internal Medicine, Adana City Education and Research Hospital, Adana
0000-0001-6149-9341
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 13 Eylül 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 8 Şubat 2021
Kabul Tarihi 8 Temmuz 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 60, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { etd990715, journal = {Ege Tıp Dergisi}, issn = {1016-9113}, eissn = {2147-6500}, address = {}, publisher = {Ege Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {60}, pages = {274 - 280}, doi = {10.19161/etd.990715}, title = {Relationship of multiple myeloma with ABO blood groups}, key = {cite}, author = {Yanardağ Açık, Didar and Bankir, Mehmet and Avci, Begüm Seyda} }
APA Yanardağ Açık, D. , Bankir, M. & Avci, B. S. (2021). Relationship of multiple myeloma with ABO blood groups . Ege Tıp Dergisi , 60 (3) , 274-280 . DOI: 10.19161/etd.990715
MLA Yanardağ Açık, D. , Bankir, M. , Avci, B. S. "Relationship of multiple myeloma with ABO blood groups" . Ege Tıp Dergisi 60 (2021 ): 274-280 <http://egetipdergisi.com.tr/tr/pub/issue/64760/990715>
Chicago Yanardağ Açık, D. , Bankir, M. , Avci, B. S. "Relationship of multiple myeloma with ABO blood groups". Ege Tıp Dergisi 60 (2021 ): 274-280
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Relationship of multiple myeloma with ABO blood groups AU - Didar Yanardağ Açık , Mehmet Bankir , Begüm Seyda Avci Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.19161/etd.990715 DO - 10.19161/etd.990715 T2 - Ege Tıp Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 274 EP - 280 VL - 60 IS - 3 SN - 1016-9113-2147-6500 M3 - doi: 10.19161/etd.990715 UR - https://doi.org/10.19161/etd.990715 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Ege Tıp Dergisi Relationship of multiple myeloma with ABO blood groups %A Didar Yanardağ Açık , Mehmet Bankir , Begüm Seyda Avci %T Relationship of multiple myeloma with ABO blood groups %D 2021 %J Ege Tıp Dergisi %P 1016-9113-2147-6500 %V 60 %N 3 %R doi: 10.19161/etd.990715 %U 10.19161/etd.990715
ISNAD Yanardağ Açık, Didar , Bankir, Mehmet , Avci, Begüm Seyda . "Relationship of multiple myeloma with ABO blood groups". Ege Tıp Dergisi 60 / 3 (Eylül 2021): 274-280 . https://doi.org/10.19161/etd.990715
AMA Yanardağ Açık D. , Bankir M. , Avci B. S. Relationship of multiple myeloma with ABO blood groups. ETD. 2021; 60(3): 274-280.
Vancouver Yanardağ Açık D. , Bankir M. , Avci B. S. Relationship of multiple myeloma with ABO blood groups. Ege Tıp Dergisi. 2021; 60(3): 274-280.
IEEE D. Yanardağ Açık , M. Bankir ve B. S. Avci , "Relationship of multiple myeloma with ABO blood groups", Ege Tıp Dergisi, c. 60, sayı. 3, ss. 274-280, Eyl. 2021, doi:10.19161/etd.990715

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