Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı , Sayfalar 19 - 31 2021-01-20

Rational drug use: Warfarin
Akılcı ilaç kullanımı: Varfarin

Vedat GERDAN [1]


Warfarin is the most widely used anticoagulant by physicians in many indications and in many different branches in order to prevent thrombosis in the world. In addition to having a narrow therapeutic index, it has serious interactions with a large number of medicines and plants. Although alternative oral anticoagulant agents have recently been developed, there is insufficient evidence that they are effective and safe in rheumatologic diseases such as antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. Therefore, it is necessary to know that warfarin metabolism is affected by genetic factors, to recognize side effects, drug and food interactions better, and to emphasize the importance of making fast and accurate decisions when toxicity and complications occur.
Varfarin, dünyada trombozun önlenmesi amacıyla çok sayıda endikasyonda ve çok sayıda farklı branşta hekimce en yaygın kullanılan antikoagülandır. Dar bir terapötik indekse sahip olmasının yanı sıra çok sayıda ilaç ve bitki ile ciddi etkileşmeleri de vardır. Her ne kadar yakın zamanda alternatif oral antikoagülan ajanlar geliştirilmiş olsa da bunların antifosfolipid antikor sendromu, sistemik lupus eritematoz gibi romatolojik hastalıklarda etkin ve güvenli olduğuna dair yeterli kanıt yoktur. Bu nedenle varfarin metabolizmasının genetik etkenlerden belirgin etkilendiğini bilmek, yan etkilerini, ilaç ve gıda etkileşmelerini daha iyi tanımak, toksisite ve komplikasyon olduğu zaman hızlı ve doğru karar verebilmenin önemini vurgulamak gerekiyor.
  • Pirmohamed M. Warfarin: almost 60 years old and still causing problems. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62 (5): 509-11.
  • Ramachandran S, Pitchai S. Story of warfarin: From rat poison to lifesaving drug. Indian J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2018; 5: 174-5.
  • Shapiro SS. Treating thrombosis in the 21st century. N Engl J Med [editorial] 2003; 349 (18): 1762-4.
  • Hirsh J, Dalen J, Anderson DR, et al. Oral anticoagulants: mechanism of action, clinical effectiveness, and optimal therapeutic range. Chest 2001; 119 (1 Suppl): 8S-21S.
  • White PJ. Patient factors that influence warfarin dose response. J Pharm Pract 2010; 23 (3): 194-204.
  • James AH, Britt RP, Raskino CL, et al. Factors affecting the maintenance dose of warfarin. J Clin Pathol 1992; 45 (8): 704-706.
  • Hylek EM. Oral anticoagulants pharmacologic issues for use in elderly. Clin Geriatr Med 2001; 17 (1): 1-13.
  • Singla DA, Morrill GB. Warfarin maintenance dosages in the very elderly. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2005; 62 (10): 1062-6.
  • Siguret V, Gouin I, Debray M, et al. Initiation of warfarin therapy in elderly medical inpatients: A safe and accurate regimen. Am J Med 2005; 118 (2): 137-42.
  • O‟Connell MB, Kowal PR, Allivato CJ, et al. Evaluation of warfarin initiation regimens in elderly inpatients. Pharmacotherapy. 2000; 20 (8): 923-930.
  • Ansell J, Hirsh J, Hylek E, et al. Pharmacology and management of the vitamin K antagonists. Chest 2008;133(6 suppl): 160S-198S
  • Absher RK, Moore ME, Parker MH. Patient-specific factors predictive of warfarin dosage requirements. Ann Pharmacother 2002; 36 (10): 1512-7.
  • Cushman M, Booth SL, Possidente CL, et al. The association of vitamin K status with warfarin sensitivity at the onset of treatment. Br J Haematol 2001; 112 (3): 572-7.
  • Couris R, Tataronis G, McCloskey W, et al. Dietary vitamin K variability affects international normalized ratio (INR) coagulation indices. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2006; 76 (2): 65-74.
  • Franco V, Polanczyk CA, Clausell N, et al. Role of dietary vitamin K intake in chronic oral anticoagulation: prospective evidence from observational and randomized protocols. Am J Med 2004; 116 (10): 651-6.
  • Kurnick D, Loebstein R, Rabinovitz H, Austerweil N, Halkin H, Almog S. Over-the-counter vitamin K1-containing multivitamin supplements disrupt warfarin anticoagulation in vitamin K1-depleted patients. Thromb Haemost 2004; 92 (5): 1018-24.
  • Sconce E, Avery P, Wynne H, et al. Vitamin K supplementation can improve stability of anticoagulation for patients with unexplained variability in response to warfarin. Blood 2007; 109 (6): 2419-23.
  • Reese AM, Farnett LE, Lyons R, et al. Low-dose vitamin K to augment anticoagulation control. Pharmacotherapy 2005; 25 (12): 1746-51.
  • Ford SK, Misita CP, Shilliday BB, et al. Prospective study of supplemental vitamin K therapy in patients on oral anticoagulants with unstable international normalized ratios. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2007; 24 (1): 23-7.
  • Beatty SJ, Mehta BM, Rodis JL. Decreased warfarin effect after initiation of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39 (4): 744-7.
  • Hornsby LB, Hester EK, Donaldson AR. Potential interaction between warfarin and high dietary protein intake. Pharmacotherapy 2008; 28 (4): 536-9.
  • Deitcher SR. Interpretation of the international normalised ratio in patients with liver disease. Lancet 2002; 359 (9300):47-8.
  • Kovacs MJ, Wong A, MacKinnon K, et al. Assessment of the variability of the INR system for patients with liver impairment. Thromb Haemost 1994; 71 (6): 727-30.
  • Kujovich JL. Hemostatic defects in end stage liver disease. Crit Care Clin 2005; 21 (3): 563-87.
  • Blanchard RA, Furie BC, Jorgensen M, et al. Acquired vitamin K-dependent carboxylation deficiency in liver disease. N Engl J Med 1981; 305 (5):242-8.
  • Brigden ML, Kay C, Le A, et al. Audit of the frequency and clinical response to excessive oral anticoagulation in an out-patient population. Am J Hematol 1998; 59 (1): 22-7.
  • Zhang K, Young C, Berger J. Administrative claims analysis of the relationship between warfarin use and risk of hemorrhage including drug-drug and drug-disease interactions. J Manag Care Pharm 2006;12(8):640-8.
  • Landefeld CS, Goldman OL. Major bleeding in outpatients treated with warfarin: incidence and prediction by factors known at the start of outpatient therapy. Am J Med 1989; 87 (2): 144-52.
  • Beyth RJ, Quinn LM, Landefeld CS. Prospective evaluation of an index for predicting the risk of major bleeding in outpatients treated with warfarin. Am J Med 1998; 105 (2): 91-9.
  • Chan KE, Lazarus JM, Thadhani R, et al. Anticoagulant and antiplatelet usage associates with mortality among hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20 (4): 872-81.
  • Limdi NA, Beasley M, Baird MF, et al. Kidney function influences warfarin responsiveness and hemorrhagic complications. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20 (4): 912-21.
  • Demirkan K, Stephens MA, Newman KP, et al. Response to warfarin and other oral anticoagulants: effects of disease states. South Med J 2000; 93 (5): 448-54.
  • Akin F, Yaylali GF, Bastemir M, et al. Effect of methimazole on warfarin anticoagulation in a case of Graves‟ disease. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2008; 19 (1): 89-91.
  • Busenbark LA, Cushnie SA. Effect of Graves‟ disease and methimazole on warfarin anticoagulation. Ann Pharmacother 2006; 40 (6): 1200-3.
  • Stephens MA, Self TH, Lancaster D, et al. Hypothyroidism: effect on warfarin anticoagulation. South Med J 1989; 82 (12): 1585-6.
  • Bucerius J, Joe AY, Palmedo H, Reinhardt MJ, Biersack HJ. Impact of short-term hypothyroidism on systemic anticoagulation in patients with thyroid cancer and coumarin therapy. Thyroid 2006; 16 (4): 369-74.
  • Heimark LD, Wienkers L, Kunze K, et al. The mechanism of the interaction between amiodarone and warfarin in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1992; 51 (4): 398-407.
  • Patel C, Yan GX, Kowey PR. Dronedarone. Circulation 2009; 120 (7): 636-44.
  • Garcia D, Regan S, Crowther M, Hughes RA, Hylek EM. Warfarin maintenance dosing patterns in clinical practice. Chest 2005; 127 (6): 2049-56.
  • Whitely HP, Fermo JD, Chumney EC, Brzezinski WA. Effect of patient-specific factors on weekly warfarin dose. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2007; 3 (3): 499-504.
  • Visser LE, Bleumink GS, Trienekens PH, Vulto AG, Hofman A, Stricker BH. The risk of overanticoagulation in patients with heart failure on coumarin anticoagulants. Br J Haematol 2004; 127 (1): 85-9.
  • Penning-van Beest FJ, van Meegen E, Rosendaal FR. Characteristics of anticoagulant therapy and comorbidity related to overanticoagulation. Thromb Haemost 2001; 86 (2): 569-74.
  • Cadiou G, Varin R, Levesque H, et al. Risk factors of vitamin K antagonist overanticoagulation: A case-control study in unselected patients referred to an emergency department. Thromb Haemost 2008; 100 (4): 685-92.
  • Schulman S, El Bouazzaoui B, Eikelboom JW, Zondag M. Clinical factors influencing the sensitivity to warfarin when restarted after surgery. J Intern Med 2008; 263 (4): 412-9.
  • Lee J, Lee B, Kim K, et al. Factors affecting warfarin therapy following cardiac valve surgery. Ann Pharmacother 2002; 36 (12): 1845-50.
  • Chandler WL. Effect of hemodilution, blood loss, and consumption on hemostatic factor levels during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2005; 19 (4): 459-67.
  • Ageno W, Turpie AGG, Steidl L, et al. Comparison of a Daily fixed 2.5mg warfarin dose with a 5mg, international normalized ratio adjusted, warfarin dose initially following heart valve replacement. Am J Cardiol 2001; 88 (1): 40-4.
  • Lenzini PA, Grice GR, Milligan PE, et al. Optimal initial dose adjustment of warfarin in orthopedic patients. Ann Pharmacother 2007; 41 (11): 1798-804.
  • Antikoagülan Tedavi. Toraks Derneği Pulmoner Tromboembolizm Tanı ve Tedavi Uzlaşı Raporu 2015. 34-40. toraks.org.tr.
  • Malone DC, Hutchins DS, Haupert H, et al. Assessment of potential drug-drug interations with a prescription claims database. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2005; 62 (19): 1983-91.
  • Glassman PA, Simon B, Belperio P, Lanto A. Improving recognition of drug interactions: benefits and barriers to using automatic drug alerts. Med Care 2002; 40 (12): 1161-71.
  • Weideman RA, Bernstein IH, McKinney WP. Pharmacist recognition of potential drug interactions. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1999; 56 (15): 1524-9.
  • Wadelius M, Chen LY, Downes K, et al. Common VKORC1 and GGCX polymorphisms associated with warfarin dose. Pharmacogenomics J 2005; 5 (4): 262-70.
  • Sconce EA, Khan TI, Wynne HA, et al. The impact of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphism and patient characteristics upon warfarin dose requirements: proposal for a new dosing regimen. Blood 2005; 106 (7): 2329-33.
  • Aithal GP, Day CP, Kesteven PJ, Daly AK. Association of polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 with warfarin döşe requirement and risk of bleeding complications. Lancet 1999; 353 (9154): 717-9.
  • Higashi MK, Veenstra DL, Kondo LM, et al. Association between CYP2C9 genetic variants and anticoagulation-related outcomes during warfarin therapy. JAMA 2002; 287 (13): 1690-8.
  • Dang MT, Hambleton J, Kayser SR. The influence of ethnicity on warfarin dosage requirement. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39 (6): 1008-12.
  • Gage BF, Lesko LJ. Pharmacogenetics of warfarin: regulatory, scientific, and clinical issues. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2008; 25 (1): 45-51.
  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Clarification of optimal anticoagulation through genetics (COAG). Clinical Trials.gov http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00839657
  • Rieder MJ, Reiner AP, Gage BF, et al. Effect of VKORC1 haplotypes on transcriptional regulation and warfarin dose. N Engl J Med 2005; 352 (22): 2285-93.
  • Limdi NA, Beasley TM, Crowley MR, et al. VKORC1 polymorphisms, haplotypes and haplotype groups on warfarin dose among African-Americans and European-Americans. Pharmacogenomics 2008;9(10):1445-58.
  • Schwartz UI, Ritchie MD, Bradford Y, et al. Genetic determinants of response to warfarin during initial anticoagulation. N Engl J Med 2008; 358 (10): 999-1008.
  • Dang MT, Hambleton J, Kayser SR. The influence of ethnicity on warfarin dosage requirement. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39 (6): 1008-112.
  • Marsh S, King CR, Porche-Sorbet RM, Scott-Horton TJ, Eby CS. Population variation in VKORC1 haplotype structure. J Thromb Haemost 2006; 4 (2): 473-4.
  • Crowther MA, Ginsberg JB, Kearon C, et al. A randomized trial comparing 5-mg and 10-mg warfarin loading doses. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159 (1):46-8.
  • Alving BM, Strickler MP, Knight RD, Barr CF, Berenberg JL, Peck CC. Hereditary warfarin resistance. Investigation of a rare phenomenon. Arch Intern Med 1985; 145: 499-501.
  • Bodin L, Perdu J, Diry M, Horellou MH, Loriot MA. Multiple genetic alterations in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 gene (VKORC1) can explain the high dose requirement during oral anticoagulation in humans. J Thromb Haemost 2008; 6: 1436-9.
  • Schmeits PC, Hermans MH, van Geest-Daalderop JH, Poodt J, de Sauvage Nolting PR, Conemans JM. VKORC1 mutations in patients with partial resistance to phenprocoumon. Br J Haematol 2010; 148: 955-7.
  • Linder MW. Genetic mechanisms for hypersensitivity and resistance to the anticoagulant Warfarin. Clin Chim Acta 2001; 308: 9-15.
  • Holbrook A, Schulman S, Witt DM, at al. Evidence-based management of anticoagulant therapy: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012; 141 (2 Suppl):e152S-e184S. doi: 10.1378/chest.11-2295.
  • Keeling D, Baglin T, Tait C et al. Guidelines on oral anticoagulation with warfarin - fourth edition. Br J Haematol 2011; 154 (3): 311-24.
  • Mark A, Ginsberg JS, Julian J et al. A comparison of two intensities of warfarin for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis in patients with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003; 349:1133-8.
  • Finazzi G, Marchioli R, Brancaccio V, et al. A randomized clinical trial of high-intensity warfarin vs. conventional antithrombotic therapy for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (WAPS). J Thromb Haemost 2005; 3 (5): 848-53.
  • Khamashta MA, Cuadrado MJ, Mujic F, Taub NA, Hunt BJ, Hughes GR. The management of thrombosis in the antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 993-7.
  • Perry D, Noakes T, Helliwell P; British Dental Society. Guidelines for the management of patients on oral anticoagulants requiring dental surgery. Br Dent J 2007; 203 (7): 389-93.
Birincil Dil tr
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Olgu Sunumu
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0001-8501-6172
Yazar: Vedat GERDAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: EGE TIP FAKÜLTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Başvuru Tarihi : 6 Nisan 2020
Kabul Tarihi : 28 Ağustos 2020
Yayımlanma Tarihi : 20 Ocak 2021

Bibtex @olgu sunumu { etd863730, journal = {Ege Tıp Dergisi}, issn = {1016-9113}, eissn = {2147-6500}, address = {}, publisher = {Ege Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {}, pages = {19 - 31}, doi = {10.19161/etd.863730}, title = {Akılcı ilaç kullanımı: Varfarin}, key = {cite}, author = {Gerdan, Vedat} }
APA Gerdan, V . (2021). Akılcı ilaç kullanımı: Varfarin . Ege Tıp Dergisi , Cilt: 60 Özel Sayı: 1 (Romatoloji) , 19-31 . DOI: 10.19161/etd.863730
MLA Gerdan, V . "Akılcı ilaç kullanımı: Varfarin" . Ege Tıp Dergisi (2021 ): 19-31 <http://egetipdergisi.com.tr/tr/pub/issue/59812/863730>
Chicago Gerdan, V . "Akılcı ilaç kullanımı: Varfarin". Ege Tıp Dergisi (2021 ): 19-31
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Akılcı ilaç kullanımı: Varfarin AU - Vedat Gerdan Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.19161/etd.863730 DO - 10.19161/etd.863730 T2 - Ege Tıp Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 19 EP - 31 VL - IS - SN - 1016-9113-2147-6500 M3 - doi: 10.19161/etd.863730 UR - https://doi.org/10.19161/etd.863730 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Ege Tıp Dergisi Akılcı ilaç kullanımı: Varfarin %A Vedat Gerdan %T Akılcı ilaç kullanımı: Varfarin %D 2021 %J Ege Tıp Dergisi %P 1016-9113-2147-6500 %V %N %R doi: 10.19161/etd.863730 %U 10.19161/etd.863730
ISNAD Gerdan, Vedat . "Akılcı ilaç kullanımı: Varfarin". Ege Tıp Dergisi / (Ocak 2021): 19-31 . https://doi.org/10.19161/etd.863730
AMA Gerdan V . Akılcı ilaç kullanımı: Varfarin. ETD. 2021; 19-31.
Vancouver Gerdan V . Akılcı ilaç kullanımı: Varfarin. Ege Tıp Dergisi. 2021; 19-31.
IEEE V. Gerdan , "Akılcı ilaç kullanımı: Varfarin", Ege Tıp Dergisi, ss. 19-31, Oca. 2021, doi:10.19161/etd.863730