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COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde yaşlıya yönelik ayrımcı uygulamalar ve yaşlı bireyler cephesinde durum değerlendirilmesi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 60, Sayı 2, 181 - 190, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.19161/etd.950574

Öz

COVID-19'un ortaya çıkıĢı, dünyada karıĢık, sürekli geliĢen ve değiĢen bir durum ortaya çıkararak her yaĢtan insanı etkilemeye devam etmektedir. Ancak virüse bağlı ciddi hastalık geliĢimi ve ölme riski yaĢla birlikte artar. Bu durum, COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde altta yatan yaĢa dayalı ayrımcı tutumları ortaya çıkaran veya teĢvik eden çok sayıda sorunlu politika önerileri ve yorumlarına yol açmaktadır. YaĢlıları homojen bir Ģekilde ‗kırılgan‘ ve ‗savunmasız‘ olarak etiketlendiren bu yaklaĢım, kitlelerin yaĢ temelindeki ayrımcı tutumlarını körükleyerek pandemiye paralel bir yaĢlı ayrımcılığı salgınının patlak vermesine sebep olmuĢtur. Virüsle mücadele esnasında sağlık bakımında ve sokağa çıkıĢ kısıtlaması uygulamalarında yaĢ temelli kararların alınması, medyada ve sağlık yetkilileri açıklamalarında ‗yaĢlı‘ vurgusunun tekrarlaması, sosyal medyada yaĢlı bireylere yönelik ötekileĢtirme/siber zorbalık/stigmatizasyonun artıĢı tüm toplumlarda yaĢanan problemlerdir. YaĢlının esenliğine, özerkliğine ve yaĢam hakkına zarar veren bu yaklaĢımların yerleĢip kurumsallaĢması yaĢlıların toplumdan dıĢlanmasıyla sonuçlanacaktır. Ayrıca genç ve yaĢlı arasındaki bölünme, mevcut pandemi bağlamında yaĢlılık ve yaĢlanmayla ilgili olumsuz mesajları içselleĢtiren gençlerin yaĢlanma sürecini olumsuz etkileyebilir.

Kaynakça

  • Deshpande J. V, Kochar S. C, Singh H. Aspects of positive ageing. Journal of Applied Probability 1986; 748-58.
  • Angus J, Reeve P. Ageism: A threat to ―aging well‖ in the 21st century. Journal of Applied Gerontology 2006; 25 (2): 137-52.
  • Officer A, de la Fuente-Núñez, V. A global campaign to combat ageism. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2018; 96 (4): 295.
  • Çilingiroğlu N, Demirel S. YaĢlılık. "yaĢlı ayrımcılığı." Türk Geriatri Dergisi 2004; 7 (4): 225-30.
  • Ayalon L, Dolberg P, Mikulionienė S. A systematic review of existing ageism scales. Ageing research reviews 2019; 54: 100919.
  • Agesim- berkeley.edu. Robinson B. Ageism. University of California at Berkeley [updated 1994; cited 3 Apr 2005]. Available from: http://socrates.berkeley.edu/∼aging/ModuleAgeism.htm
  • Palmore, E. B. Ageism: Negative and Pozitive. 2. Baskı New York: Springer Publishing Company; 1999:1-6.
  • Palmore E B Research note: ageism in Canada and the United States. Journal of cross-cultural gerontology 2004; 19 (1): 41-46.
  • Ayalon L. Perceived age, gender, and racial/ethnic discrimination in Europe: Results from the European social survey. Educational Gerontology 2014; 40 (7): 499-517.
  • Peterson L, Ralston M. Valued elders or societal burden: Cross-national attitudes toward older adults. International Sociology 2017; 32 (6): 731-54.
  • Global Report On Ageism-who.int. [updated 18 Mar 2021; cited 21 Mar 2021]. Available from:https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240020504
  • Marques S, Mariano J, Mendonça J. Determinants of ageism against older adults: a systematic review. International journal of environmental research and public health 2020; 17 (7): 2560.
  • Ulukan U. Türkiye‘de Demografik DönüĢüm ve YaĢlı ĠĢçiler. Fiscaoeconomia 2020; 4 (1): 94-110.
  • Walker A. Commentary: The emergence and application of active aging in Europe. Journal of aging & social policy 2008; 21 (1): 75-93.
  • Lamont R A, Swift H J, Abrams D. A review and meta-analysis of age-based stereotype threat: negative stereotypes, not facts, do the damage. Psychology and aging 2015; 30 (1): 180.
  • Wurm S, Benyamini Y. Optimism buffers the detrimental effect of negative self-perceptions of ageing on physical and mental health. Psychology & Health 2014; 29 (7): 832-48.
  • Levy B R, Slade M D, Murphy T E, Gill T M. Association between positive age stereotypes and recovery from disability in older persons. Jama 2012; 308 (19): 1972-73.
  • Vitman A, Iecovich E, Alfasi N. Ageism and social integration of older adults in their neighborhoods in Israel. The Gerontologist 2014; 54 (2): 177-89.
  • McHugh K E. Three faces of ageism: society, image and place. Ageing & Society 2003;23(2):165-85.
  • Levy B R, Slade M D, Kunkel S R, Kasl S V. Longevity increased by positive self-perceptions of aging. Journal of personality and social psychology 2002; 83 (2): 261.
  • Chang E S, Kannoth S, Levy S, Wang S Y, Lee J E, Levy B R. Global reach of ageism on older persons‘ health: A systematic review. PloS one 2020; 15 (1): e0220857.
  • Miller E A. Protecting and improving the lives of older adults in the COVID-19 Era. Journal of Aging & Social Policy 2020; 32 (4-5): 297-309.
  • Morrow-Howell N, Galucia N, Swinford E. Recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic: A focus on older adults. Journal of aging & social policy 2020; 32 (4-5): 526-35.
  • Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic- who.int. [updated 27 Mar 2021; cited 28 Mar 2021]. Available from:https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019 EriĢim:28.03.2021
  • Clarfield A M, Jotkowitz A. Age, ageing, ageism and ―age-itation‖ in the Age of COVID-19: rights and obligations relating to older persons in Israel as observed through the lens of medical ethics. Israel journal of health policy research 2020; 9 (1): 1-13.
  • Monahan C, Macdonald J, Lytle A, Apriceno M, Levy S R. COVID-19 and ageism: How positive and negative responses impact older adults and society. American Psychologist. 2020.
  • Ehni H J, Wahl H W. Six propositions against ageism in the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Aging & Social Policy 2020; 32 (4-5): 515-25.
  • Lichtenstein B. From ―coffin dodger‖ to ―boomer remover‖: Outbreaks of ageism in three countries with divergent approaches to coronavirus control. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 2021;76(4):e206-e212.
  • Morrow-Howell N, Galucia N, Swinford E. Recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic: A focus on older adults. Journal of aging & social policy 2020;32(4-5):526-35.
  • Previtali F, Allen L D, Varlamova M. Not only virus spread: The diffusion of ageism during the outbreak of COVID-19. Journal of Aging & Social Policy 2020; 32 (4-5): 506-14. Büken, N Ö. COVID 19 pandemisi ve etik konular. Sağlık ve Toplum 2020;7(Suppl COVID-19 Özel Sayısı): 15.
  • British Medical Association (BMA)-bma.org.uk. London, UK: COVID-19—Ethical issues. A guidance note [updated 13 Mar 2020; cited 28 Mar 2021]. Available from: https://www.bma.org.uk/media/2226/bma-covid-19-ethics-guidance.pdf.
  • Cesari M, Proietti M. COVID-19 in Italy: ageism and decision making in a pandemic. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2020;21(5):576-77.
  • Leaders speak out about their concerns regarding older people in the context of COVID-19-who.int. [updated 12 Jun 2020; cited 01 Sep 2020]. Available from:https://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/leaders-speak-out-older-people-covid-19
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  • If I get corona, I get corona: Coronavirus pandemic doesn‘t slow spring breakers‘ party- usatoday.com. Miller W R. The US Today [updated 19 Mar 2020; cited 01 Sep 2020]. Available from:https://eu.usatoday.com/story/travel/destinations/2020/03/19/spring-break-beaches-florida-look-packed-despite-coronavirus-spread/2873248001/
  • Officials plead with young people to stop partying during pandemic-asahi.com. Takashima M. The Asahi Shimbun [updated 31 Mar 2020; cited 06 Jun 2020]. Available from:http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/13260124
  • Al Sud i Danni Collaterali Dell‘emergenza. Sindaci Spiazzati Dai Ritorni Rorzati. La Stampa- lastampa.it. Di Marino A. La Stampa [updated 25 Feb 2020; cited 06 Jun 2020]. Available from:https://www.lastampa.it/cronaca/2020/02/25/news/al-sud-i-danni-collaterali-dell-emergenza-sindaci-spiazzati-dai-ritorni-forzati-1.38512545
  • Altın Z. Covid-19 Pandemisinde YaĢlılar. Tepecik Eğit. ve AraĢt. Hast. Dergisi 2020; 30: 49-57.
  • Older people would rather die than let Covid-19 harm US economy- theguardian.com. Texas, USA Beckett L. the Guardian. [updated 24 Mar 2020; cited 26 Oct 2020]. Available from:https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/24/older-people-would-rather-die-than-let-covid-19-lockdown-harm-us-economy-texas-official-dan-patrick
  • Meisner B A. Are you OK, Boomer? Intensification of ageism and intergenerational tensions on social media amid COVID-19. Leisure Sciences 2020;1-6.
  • Jimenez‐Sotomayor M R, Gomez‐Moreno C, Soto‐Perez‐de‐Celis E. Coronavirus, ageism, and Twitter: An evaluation of tweets about older adults and COVID‐19. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2020; 68 (8): 1661-65.
  • Ayalon L, Chasteen A, Diehl M, et al. Aging in times of the COVID-19 pandemic: Avoiding ageism and fostering intergenerational solidarity. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 2020.
  • Cohn-Schwartz E, Ayalon L. Societal views of older adults as vulnerable and a burden to society during the COVID-19 outbreak: Results from an Israeli nationally representative sample. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 2020.
  • Knuutila M, Lehti T E, Karppinen H, Kautiainen H, Strandberg T E, Pitkala K H. Associations of perceived poor societal treatment among the oldest-old. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 2021; 93: 104318.
  • Canatan K. Kriz Zamanlarında Sosyal Mesafe. Adam Akademi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 2020; 10 (1): 1-18.
  • COVID-19 Pandemisi ve Sağlığın Sosyal BileĢenleri, Türk Toraks Derneği COVID-19 E-Kitapları Serisi; 2020: 5-24.
  • D'cruz M, Banerjee D. An invisible human rights crisis: The marginalization of older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic–An advocacy review. Psychiatry research 2020; 113369.
  • Women, U. N. COVID-19: How to Include Marginalized and Vulnerable People in Risk Communication and Community Engagement; 2020.
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Discriminatory practices towards the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic and assessment of the situation on the elderly people

Yıl 2021, Cilt 60, Sayı 2, 181 - 190, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.19161/etd.950574

Öz

The emergence of COVID-19 has created a complex, ever-evolving and changing situation in the world that affected people of all ages, in different ways. The risk of developing severe illness from the virus and of dying from it increases with age. This statement has led to numerous highly problematic policy suggestions and comments revealing underlying ageist attitudes and promoting age discrimination. This approach, which labels the elderly as "frail" and "vulnerable" in a homogeneous way, has fueled the age-based discriminatory attitudes of the masses, causing an epidemic of age discrimination parallel to the pandemic. Age-based decisions in health care and curfews during the fight against the virus, the repetition of the 'old' emphasis in the media and health officials' statements, the increase of marginalization / cyberbullying / stigmatization towards elderly individuals on social media are the problems experienced in all societies. The establishment and institutionalization of these approaches that harm the well-being, autonomy and right to life of the elderly will result in the exclusion of the elderly from society. In addition, the division between young and old can negatively affect the aging process of young people, who internalize negative messages about old age and aging in the context of the current pandemic

Kaynakça

  • Deshpande J. V, Kochar S. C, Singh H. Aspects of positive ageing. Journal of Applied Probability 1986; 748-58.
  • Angus J, Reeve P. Ageism: A threat to ―aging well‖ in the 21st century. Journal of Applied Gerontology 2006; 25 (2): 137-52.
  • Officer A, de la Fuente-Núñez, V. A global campaign to combat ageism. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2018; 96 (4): 295.
  • Çilingiroğlu N, Demirel S. YaĢlılık. "yaĢlı ayrımcılığı." Türk Geriatri Dergisi 2004; 7 (4): 225-30.
  • Ayalon L, Dolberg P, Mikulionienė S. A systematic review of existing ageism scales. Ageing research reviews 2019; 54: 100919.
  • Agesim- berkeley.edu. Robinson B. Ageism. University of California at Berkeley [updated 1994; cited 3 Apr 2005]. Available from: http://socrates.berkeley.edu/∼aging/ModuleAgeism.htm
  • Palmore, E. B. Ageism: Negative and Pozitive. 2. Baskı New York: Springer Publishing Company; 1999:1-6.
  • Palmore E B Research note: ageism in Canada and the United States. Journal of cross-cultural gerontology 2004; 19 (1): 41-46.
  • Ayalon L. Perceived age, gender, and racial/ethnic discrimination in Europe: Results from the European social survey. Educational Gerontology 2014; 40 (7): 499-517.
  • Peterson L, Ralston M. Valued elders or societal burden: Cross-national attitudes toward older adults. International Sociology 2017; 32 (6): 731-54.
  • Global Report On Ageism-who.int. [updated 18 Mar 2021; cited 21 Mar 2021]. Available from:https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240020504
  • Marques S, Mariano J, Mendonça J. Determinants of ageism against older adults: a systematic review. International journal of environmental research and public health 2020; 17 (7): 2560.
  • Ulukan U. Türkiye‘de Demografik DönüĢüm ve YaĢlı ĠĢçiler. Fiscaoeconomia 2020; 4 (1): 94-110.
  • Walker A. Commentary: The emergence and application of active aging in Europe. Journal of aging & social policy 2008; 21 (1): 75-93.
  • Lamont R A, Swift H J, Abrams D. A review and meta-analysis of age-based stereotype threat: negative stereotypes, not facts, do the damage. Psychology and aging 2015; 30 (1): 180.
  • Wurm S, Benyamini Y. Optimism buffers the detrimental effect of negative self-perceptions of ageing on physical and mental health. Psychology & Health 2014; 29 (7): 832-48.
  • Levy B R, Slade M D, Murphy T E, Gill T M. Association between positive age stereotypes and recovery from disability in older persons. Jama 2012; 308 (19): 1972-73.
  • Vitman A, Iecovich E, Alfasi N. Ageism and social integration of older adults in their neighborhoods in Israel. The Gerontologist 2014; 54 (2): 177-89.
  • McHugh K E. Three faces of ageism: society, image and place. Ageing & Society 2003;23(2):165-85.
  • Levy B R, Slade M D, Kunkel S R, Kasl S V. Longevity increased by positive self-perceptions of aging. Journal of personality and social psychology 2002; 83 (2): 261.
  • Chang E S, Kannoth S, Levy S, Wang S Y, Lee J E, Levy B R. Global reach of ageism on older persons‘ health: A systematic review. PloS one 2020; 15 (1): e0220857.
  • Miller E A. Protecting and improving the lives of older adults in the COVID-19 Era. Journal of Aging & Social Policy 2020; 32 (4-5): 297-309.
  • Morrow-Howell N, Galucia N, Swinford E. Recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic: A focus on older adults. Journal of aging & social policy 2020; 32 (4-5): 526-35.
  • Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic- who.int. [updated 27 Mar 2021; cited 28 Mar 2021]. Available from:https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019 EriĢim:28.03.2021
  • Clarfield A M, Jotkowitz A. Age, ageing, ageism and ―age-itation‖ in the Age of COVID-19: rights and obligations relating to older persons in Israel as observed through the lens of medical ethics. Israel journal of health policy research 2020; 9 (1): 1-13.
  • Monahan C, Macdonald J, Lytle A, Apriceno M, Levy S R. COVID-19 and ageism: How positive and negative responses impact older adults and society. American Psychologist. 2020.
  • Ehni H J, Wahl H W. Six propositions against ageism in the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Aging & Social Policy 2020; 32 (4-5): 515-25.
  • Lichtenstein B. From ―coffin dodger‖ to ―boomer remover‖: Outbreaks of ageism in three countries with divergent approaches to coronavirus control. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 2021;76(4):e206-e212.
  • Morrow-Howell N, Galucia N, Swinford E. Recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic: A focus on older adults. Journal of aging & social policy 2020;32(4-5):526-35.
  • Previtali F, Allen L D, Varlamova M. Not only virus spread: The diffusion of ageism during the outbreak of COVID-19. Journal of Aging & Social Policy 2020; 32 (4-5): 506-14. Büken, N Ö. COVID 19 pandemisi ve etik konular. Sağlık ve Toplum 2020;7(Suppl COVID-19 Özel Sayısı): 15.
  • British Medical Association (BMA)-bma.org.uk. London, UK: COVID-19—Ethical issues. A guidance note [updated 13 Mar 2020; cited 28 Mar 2021]. Available from: https://www.bma.org.uk/media/2226/bma-covid-19-ethics-guidance.pdf.
  • Cesari M, Proietti M. COVID-19 in Italy: ageism and decision making in a pandemic. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2020;21(5):576-77.
  • Leaders speak out about their concerns regarding older people in the context of COVID-19-who.int. [updated 12 Jun 2020; cited 01 Sep 2020]. Available from:https://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/leaders-speak-out-older-people-covid-19
  • Many parts of America have already decided to sacrifice the elderly- washingtonpost.com. Coughlin J, L. Yoquinto. The Washington Post [updated 13 Apr 2020; cited 01 Sep 2020].Available from:https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2020/04/13/many-parts-america-have-already-decided-sacrifice-elderly/
  • If I get corona, I get corona: Coronavirus pandemic doesn‘t slow spring breakers‘ party- usatoday.com. Miller W R. The US Today [updated 19 Mar 2020; cited 01 Sep 2020]. Available from:https://eu.usatoday.com/story/travel/destinations/2020/03/19/spring-break-beaches-florida-look-packed-despite-coronavirus-spread/2873248001/
  • Officials plead with young people to stop partying during pandemic-asahi.com. Takashima M. The Asahi Shimbun [updated 31 Mar 2020; cited 06 Jun 2020]. Available from:http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/13260124
  • Al Sud i Danni Collaterali Dell‘emergenza. Sindaci Spiazzati Dai Ritorni Rorzati. La Stampa- lastampa.it. Di Marino A. La Stampa [updated 25 Feb 2020; cited 06 Jun 2020]. Available from:https://www.lastampa.it/cronaca/2020/02/25/news/al-sud-i-danni-collaterali-dell-emergenza-sindaci-spiazzati-dai-ritorni-forzati-1.38512545
  • Altın Z. Covid-19 Pandemisinde YaĢlılar. Tepecik Eğit. ve AraĢt. Hast. Dergisi 2020; 30: 49-57.
  • Older people would rather die than let Covid-19 harm US economy- theguardian.com. Texas, USA Beckett L. the Guardian. [updated 24 Mar 2020; cited 26 Oct 2020]. Available from:https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/24/older-people-would-rather-die-than-let-covid-19-lockdown-harm-us-economy-texas-official-dan-patrick
  • Meisner B A. Are you OK, Boomer? Intensification of ageism and intergenerational tensions on social media amid COVID-19. Leisure Sciences 2020;1-6.
  • Jimenez‐Sotomayor M R, Gomez‐Moreno C, Soto‐Perez‐de‐Celis E. Coronavirus, ageism, and Twitter: An evaluation of tweets about older adults and COVID‐19. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2020; 68 (8): 1661-65.
  • Ayalon L, Chasteen A, Diehl M, et al. Aging in times of the COVID-19 pandemic: Avoiding ageism and fostering intergenerational solidarity. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 2020.
  • Cohn-Schwartz E, Ayalon L. Societal views of older adults as vulnerable and a burden to society during the COVID-19 outbreak: Results from an Israeli nationally representative sample. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 2020.
  • Knuutila M, Lehti T E, Karppinen H, Kautiainen H, Strandberg T E, Pitkala K H. Associations of perceived poor societal treatment among the oldest-old. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 2021; 93: 104318.
  • Canatan K. Kriz Zamanlarında Sosyal Mesafe. Adam Akademi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 2020; 10 (1): 1-18.
  • COVID-19 Pandemisi ve Sağlığın Sosyal BileĢenleri, Türk Toraks Derneği COVID-19 E-Kitapları Serisi; 2020: 5-24.
  • D'cruz M, Banerjee D. An invisible human rights crisis: The marginalization of older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic–An advocacy review. Psychiatry research 2020; 113369.
  • Women, U. N. COVID-19: How to Include Marginalized and Vulnerable People in Risk Communication and Community Engagement; 2020.
  • Ciafone A, McGeehan Muchmore D. Old Age and Radical History: Editors‘ Introduction 2021; 1: 12.
  • TÜİK, İstatistiklerle Yaşlılar, 2019-tuik.gov.tr. [updated 18 Mar 2020; cited 02 Apr 2021]. Available from:https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Istatistiklerle-Yaslilar-2019-33712.
  • DEMİR S A. SALGIN SÜRECİNDE YAŞLI NÜFUS, SOSYAL DIŞLANMA VE YAŞ AYRIMCILIĞI. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 2020; 38: 186-201.
  • McMichael T M, Currie D W, Clark S, et al. Epidemiology of Covid-19 in a long-term care facility in King County, Washington. New England Journal of Medicine 2020;382(21):2005-11.
  • Comas-Herrera A, Zalakaín J, Litwin C, Hsu A T, Lane N, Fernández J L. Mortality associated with COVID-19 outbreaks in care homes: early international evidence. Article in LTCcovid. org, International Long-Term Care Policy Network 2020;CPEC-LSE:26.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Derlemeler
Yazarlar

Burcu DEMİR Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
Ege Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Halk Sağlığı Anabilim Dalı, Ġzmir, Türkiye
0000-0003-0023-6323
Türkiye


Aliye MANDIRACIOĞLU Bu kişi benim
Ege Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Halk Sağlığı Anabilim Dalı, İzmir, Türkiye
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 27 Nisan 2021
Kabul Tarihi 20 Mayıs 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 60, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { etd950574, journal = {Ege Tıp Dergisi}, issn = {1016-9113}, eissn = {2147-6500}, address = {}, publisher = {Ege Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {60}, pages = {181 - 190}, doi = {10.19161/etd.950574}, title = {COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde yaşlıya yönelik ayrımcı uygulamalar ve yaşlı bireyler cephesinde durum değerlendirilmesi}, key = {cite}, author = {Demir, Burcu and Mandıracıoğlu, Aliye} }
APA Demir, B. & Mandıracıoğlu, A. (2021). COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde yaşlıya yönelik ayrımcı uygulamalar ve yaşlı bireyler cephesinde durum değerlendirilmesi . Ege Tıp Dergisi , 60 (2) , 181-190 . DOI: 10.19161/etd.950574
MLA Demir, B. , Mandıracıoğlu, A. "COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde yaşlıya yönelik ayrımcı uygulamalar ve yaşlı bireyler cephesinde durum değerlendirilmesi" . Ege Tıp Dergisi 60 (2021 ): 181-190 <http://egetipdergisi.com.tr/tr/pub/issue/62746/950574>
Chicago Demir, B. , Mandıracıoğlu, A. "COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde yaşlıya yönelik ayrımcı uygulamalar ve yaşlı bireyler cephesinde durum değerlendirilmesi". Ege Tıp Dergisi 60 (2021 ): 181-190
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde yaşlıya yönelik ayrımcı uygulamalar ve yaşlı bireyler cephesinde durum değerlendirilmesi AU - Burcu Demir , Aliye Mandıracıoğlu Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.19161/etd.950574 DO - 10.19161/etd.950574 T2 - Ege Tıp Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 181 EP - 190 VL - 60 IS - 2 SN - 1016-9113-2147-6500 M3 - doi: 10.19161/etd.950574 UR - https://doi.org/10.19161/etd.950574 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Ege Tıp Dergisi COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde yaşlıya yönelik ayrımcı uygulamalar ve yaşlı bireyler cephesinde durum değerlendirilmesi %A Burcu Demir , Aliye Mandıracıoğlu %T COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde yaşlıya yönelik ayrımcı uygulamalar ve yaşlı bireyler cephesinde durum değerlendirilmesi %D 2021 %J Ege Tıp Dergisi %P 1016-9113-2147-6500 %V 60 %N 2 %R doi: 10.19161/etd.950574 %U 10.19161/etd.950574
ISNAD Demir, Burcu , Mandıracıoğlu, Aliye . "COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde yaşlıya yönelik ayrımcı uygulamalar ve yaşlı bireyler cephesinde durum değerlendirilmesi". Ege Tıp Dergisi 60 / 2 (Haziran 2021): 181-190 . https://doi.org/10.19161/etd.950574
AMA Demir B. , Mandıracıoğlu A. COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde yaşlıya yönelik ayrımcı uygulamalar ve yaşlı bireyler cephesinde durum değerlendirilmesi. ETD. 2021; 60(2): 181-190.
Vancouver Demir B. , Mandıracıoğlu A. COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde yaşlıya yönelik ayrımcı uygulamalar ve yaşlı bireyler cephesinde durum değerlendirilmesi. Ege Tıp Dergisi. 2021; 60(2): 181-190.
IEEE B. Demir ve A. Mandıracıoğlu , "COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde yaşlıya yönelik ayrımcı uygulamalar ve yaşlı bireyler cephesinde durum değerlendirilmesi", Ege Tıp Dergisi, c. 60, sayı. 2, ss. 181-190, Haz. 2021, doi:10.19161/etd.950574

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